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This report was prepared by the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO). The purpose of this report is to present an approach for evaluating the utility of the resources and costs of physical interventions that may be used when providing health care for epidemic- and pandemic-prone acute respiratory infections. This information was requested to help inform the revision of the evidence-based WHO interim guidelines, Infection prevention and control of epidemic- and pandemic-prone acute respiratory diseases in health care (July 2007, available at http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/WHO_CD_EPR_2007_6/en/index.html). These guidelines provide guidance and direction to the international community, as well as Canada.
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology (Elsevier BV)
Gordon Guyatt et al. 2011
Reprinted from The Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 64(4), Guyatt G, Oxman AD, Akl, EA, Kunz R, Vist G, Brozek J, et al., GRADE guidelines: 1. Introduction — GRADE evidence profiles and summary of findings tables, 383-94, Copyright (2011), with permission from Elsevier.
The GRADE working group has developed a standardized and transparent methodology for assessing the quality of evidence. 6 This approach has been adopted by a number of agencies and decision-making groups, including the WHO, which requested that studies in this review be presented in a GRADE format to assess the quality and reporting of the evidence.
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The quality of the outcome measure was assessed using a standard GRADE approach as described by Guyatt et al. 6 The GRADE evidence tables for outcome measures used in the economic study were prepared using the GRADEPro program.
On page 14
6. Guyatt G, Oxman AD, Akl EA, Kunz R, Vist G, Brozek J, et al. GRADE guidelines: 1. Introduction-GRADE evidence profiles and summary of findings tables. J Clin Epidemiol. 2011 Apr;64(4):383-94.
Journal of Biosciences (Springer Nature)
M. Khanna et al. 2008
1. Khanna M, Kumar P, Choudhary K, Kumar B, Vijayan VK. Emerging influenza virus: a global threat. J Biosci. 2008 Nov;33(4):475-82.
3. World Health Organization. Infection prevention and control of epidemic- and pandemic-prone acute respiratory diseases in health care: WHO interim guidelines. Geneva: The Organization; 2007 Jun. [cited 2011 Aug 8]. Available from: http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/WHO_CDS_EPR_2007_6c.pdf
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Wiley)
Tom Jefferson et al. 2011
It complements the updated Cochrane Review, Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses (Jefferson 2011), which shows that physical interventions to interrupt or delay the spread of viruses are effective in protecting against viral transmission.
On page 7
4. Jefferson T, Del MC, Dooley L, Ferroni E, Al-Ansary LA, Bawazeer GA, et al. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Cochrane review]. 2011 [cited 2011 Aug 8];(1). Available from: http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD006207/frame.html
5. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE, Kunz R, Falck-Ytter Y, Alonso-Coello P, et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ [Internet]. 2008 Apr 26 [cited 2011 Aug 8];336(7650):924-6. Available from: http://www.bmj.com/ Subscription required.
Based on the information provided in the two GRADE manuscripts on economic information and resource use 8 (Brunetti M, et al. Unpublished data [GRADE Guidelines: 11.
On page 15
GRADE guidance on the evaluation of economic and resource use information was used in creating the GRADE resource use tables 8 (Brunetti M, et al. Unpublished data [GRADE Guidelines: 11.
On page 20
8. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Kunz R, Jaeschke R, Helfand M, Liberati A, et al. GRADE: Incorporating considerations of resources use into grading recommendations. BMJ [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2011 Aug 8];336:1170-3. Available from: http://www.bmj.com/content/336/7654/1170.full
Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology (Cambridge University Press (CUP))
Melanie Murray et al. 2010
Data collection studies Murray (2010) 9 The study was conducted to assess the impact of the use of facial protective equipment during a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 period at the Vancouver Coastal Health (VCH) services.
On page 17
Murray (2010) 9 : In general, the study was well conducted, with no serious concerns for other quality assessment aspects.
On page 20
Of these studies, three reported information on resource use, either from the collection of data (Murray; 9 Macartney 10 ) or using simulation methods (Phin 11 ).
On page 17
The key studies for the purpose of resource use reporting were by Murray, 9 Phin, 11 and
On page 20
Three studies provide information on resource use alone, 9,11,15 which is difficult to interpret without the context of the clinical benefits, and based on the compliance with recommendations on PPE use provided by public health agencies.
On page 21
A finding from the studies by Murray 9 and Dan 12 is that PPEs may be overused and inappropriately used when faced with a new pandemic.
On page 22
Studies measuring resource use (Murray, 9 Macartney 10 ) were based on local recommendations or guidelines, which could affect the generalizability of the results.
On page 23
Cost per Calculation Prone to same Prone to same Prone to same Serious 9 H1N1: death limitations as limitations as limitations as
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Major flaw of study: results combine 3 scenarios for transmission of infection (related to WHO Phase 4 and 5). 9 Results not reported separately.
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9. Murray M, Grant J, Bryce E, Chilton P, Forrester L. Facial protective equipment, personnel, and pandemics: impact of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus on personnel and use of facial protective equipment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010 Oct;31(10):1011-6.
Data collection studies Murray (2010) 9 The study was conducted to assess the impact of the use of facial protective equipment during a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 period at the Vancouver Coastal Health (VCH) services.
On page 17
Murray (2010) 9 : In general, the study was well conducted, with no serious concerns for other quality assessment aspects.
On page 20
Author(s): Karen Lee, MA; Vijay Shukla, PhD; Reviewer(s): John Conly, MD; Carmem Pessoa-Silva, MD, PhD Date: 2011-03-24 Question: What is the impact of H1N1 on the use of facial masks and eyewear equipment use? Settings: Hospital setting Bibliography: Murray et al. Facial protective equipment, personnel, and pandemic: impact of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus on personnel and use of facial protective equipment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010; 31(10):1011-1016
PEDIATRICS (American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP))
K. K. Macartney et al. 2000
Macartney (2000) 10 The authors sought to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of infection control in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nosocomial infection (NI) in a pediatric facility.
On page 17
Macartney (2000) 10 : The authors considered the clinical effects, resource use, and costs associated with interventions for infection control, reporting the results in a disaggregated manner.
On page 20
Of these studies, three reported information on resource use, either from the collection of data (Murray; 9 Macartney 10 ) or using simulation methods (Phin 11 ).
On page 17
The three economic studies that reported cost-effectiveness 10,12,13 found that the use of physical interventions was in general economically attractive, with cost-effectiveness improving with higher risk pandemics or epidemics (i.e., higher rates of transmission).
On page 22
Studies measuring resource use (Murray, 9 Macartney 10 ) were based on local recommendations or guidelines, which could affect the generalizability of the results.
On page 23
10. Macartney KK, Gorelick MH, Manning ML, Hodinka RL, Bell LM. Nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections: the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of infection control. Pediatrics. 2000 Sep;106(3):520-6.
Macartney (2000) 10 The authors sought to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of infection control in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nosocomial infection (NI) in a pediatric facility.
On page 17
Macartney (2000) 10 : The authors considered the clinical effects, resource use, and costs associated with interventions for infection control, reporting the results in a disaggregated manner.
On page 20
Author(s): Karen Lee, MA; Vijay Shukla, PhD; Reviewer(s): John Conly, MD; Carmem Pessoa-Silva, MD, PhD Date: 2011-04-19 Question: Should Infection control interventions be used for spread of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nosocomial infection (NI)? Settings: Hospital Bibliography: Macartney et al. Nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections: The cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of infect control. Pediatrics 2000; 106(3):520-526.
Journal of Hospital Infection (Elsevier BV)
N.F. Phin et al. 2009
Simulation exercises Phin (2009) 11 A simulation exercise was conducted to look at the use of PPE for a 24-hour period on a typical general medical ward, during an influenza pandemic period in the UK.
On page 18
Phin (2009) 11 : This study considered resource use in a simulated exercise during a 24-hour period.
On page 20
Phin (2009) 11 A simulation exercise was conducted to look at the use of PPE for a 24-hour period on a typical general medical ward, during an influenza pandemic period in the UK.
On page 18
The key studies for the purpose of resource use reporting were by Murray, 9 Phin, 11 and
On page 20
Three studies provide information on resource use alone, 9,11,15 which is difficult to interpret without the context of the clinical benefits, and based on the compliance with recommendations on PPE use provided by public health agencies.
On page 21
11. Phin NF, Rylands AJ, Allan J, Edwards C, Enstone JE, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS. Personal protective equipment in an influenza pandemic: a UK simulation exercise. J Hosp Infect. 2009 Jan;71(1):15- 21.
Simulation exercises Phin (2009) 11 A simulation exercise was conducted to look at the use of PPE for a 24-hour period on a typical general medical ward, during an influenza pandemic period in the UK.
On page 18
Phin (2009) 11 : This study considered resource use in a simulated exercise during a 24-hour period.
On page 20
Author(s): Karen Lee, MA; Vijay Shukla, PhD; Reviewer(s): John Conly, MD; Carmem Pessoa-Silva, MD, PhD Date: 2011-03-24 Question: Personal protective equipment used in 24 hours for influenza pandemic Settings: Hospital Bibliography: Phin et al. Personal protective equipment in an influenza pandemic: a UK simulation exercise. J Hos Infect 2009; 71(1):15-21
Emerging Infectious Diseases (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC))
Yock Young Dan et al. 2009
Dan (2009) 12 The authors sought to assess the cost-effectiveness of different levels of infection control in a hospital setting in response to an epidemic respiratory virus threat, such as H1N1, over a 30-day period.
On page 18
calculated. 12,13 The study by Dan 12 was downgraded primarily because of the use of observational studies (clinical) and the limited information provided on the derivation of costs.
On page 21
The three economic studies that reported cost-effectiveness 10,12,13 found that the use of physical interventions was in general economically attractive, with cost-effectiveness improving with higher risk pandemics or epidemics (i.e., higher rates of transmission).
On page 22
A finding from the studies by Murray 9 and Dan 12 is that PPEs may be overused and inappropriately used when faced with a new pandemic.
On page 22
12. Dan YY, Tambyah PA, Sim J, Lim J, Hsu LY, Chow WL, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of hospital infection control response to an epidemic respiratory virus threat. Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. 2009 Dec [cited 2011 Aug 8];15(12):1909-16. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/15/12/pdfs/1909.pdf
Dan (2009) 12 The authors sought to assess the cost-effectiveness of different levels of infection control in a hospital setting in response to an epidemic respiratory virus threat, such as H1N1, over a 30-day period.
On page 18
Author(s): Karen Lee, MA; Vijay Shukla, PhD; Reviewer(s): John Conly, MD; Carmem Pessoa-Silva, MD, PhD Date: 2011-03-24 Question: Cost-effectiveness Green 1 strategy versus Green 0 strategy for pandemics? 1 Settings: hospital setting Bibliography: Dan et al. Cost effectiveness analysis of hospital infection control response to an epidemic respiratory virus threat. Emerg Infect Dis 2009;15(2):1909-1916
Dan (2009) 12 The authors sought to assess the cost-effectiveness of different levels of infection control in a hospital setting in response to an epidemic respiratory virus threat, such as H1N1, over a 30-day period.
On page 18
Author(s): Karen Lee, MA; Vijay Shukla, PhD; Reviewer(s): John Conly, MD; Carmem Pessoa-Silva, MD, PhD Date: 2011-03-24 Question: Cost-effectiveness of Yellow strategy versus Green 1 strategy (no additional measures) for pandemics? Settings: Hospital setting Bibliography: Dan et al. Cost effectiveness analysis of hospital infection control response to an epidemic respiratory virus threat. Emerg Infect Dis 2009;15(12):1909-1916
Dan (2009) 12 The authors sought to assess the cost-effectiveness of different levels of infection control in a hospital setting in response to an epidemic respiratory virus threat, such as H1N1, over a 30-day period.
On page 18
Author(s): Karen Lee, MA; Vijay Shukla, PhD; Reviewer(s): John Conly, MD; Carmem Pessoa-Silva, MD, PhD Date: 2011-03-24 Question: Cost-effectiveness of Orange strategy versus no additional measures for pandemics? Settings: Hospital setting Bibliography: Dan et al. Cost effectiveness analysis of hospital infection control response to an epidemic respiratory virus threat. Emerg Infect Dis 2009;15(12):1909-1916
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Oxford University Press (OUP))
Daniella J. Perlroth et al. 2010
13. Perlroth DJ, Glass RJ, Davey VJ, Cannon D, Garber AM, Owens DK. Health outcomes and costs of community mitigation strategies for an influenza pandemic in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Jan 15;50(2):165-74.
Author(s): Karen Lee, MA; Vijay Shukla, PhD; Reviewer(s): John Conly, MD; Carmem Pessoa-Silva, MD, PhD Date: 2011-03-24 Question: Social interventions in the community and hospital to reduce the spread of influenza pandemic. Settings: Community/hospital setting Bibliography: Perlroth et al. Health outcomes and cost of community mitigation strategies for an influenza pandemic in the US. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 50(2):165-74
Journal of Infection (Elsevier BV)
Anu G. Gupta et al. 2005
Gupta (2005) 14 The objective of this study was to assess the economic impact of widespread quarantine in Toronto (Ontario, Canada) during the SARS outbreaks in 2003.
On page 19
Gupta 14 used information from other researchers, the popular press, and interviews, in the absence of clinical trials or published economic evaluations.
On page 21
14. Gupta AG, Moyer CA, Stern DT. The economic impact of quarantine: SARS in Toronto as a case study. J Infect. 2005 Jun;50(5):386-93.
Gupta (2005) 14 The objective of this study was to assess the economic impact of widespread quarantine in Toronto (Ontario, Canada) during the SARS outbreaks in 2003.
On page 19
Author(s): Karen Lee, MA; Vijay Shukla, PhD; Reviewer(s): John Conly, MD; Carmem Pessoa-Silva, MD, PhD Date: 2011-03-24 Question: Economic impact of quarantine in the community during SARS. Settings: Community/hospital setting Bibliography: Gupta et al. The economic impact of quarantine: SARS in Toronto as a case study. J Inf 2005; 50(5):386-393
Emerging Infectious Diseases (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC))
Weerasak Putthasri et al. 2009
Putthasri (2009) 15 The authors of this study sought to evaluate the resources and capacity of the health care system in Thailand to contain an influenza pandemic, by assessing the current level of resource available (through surveys to health care institutions and providers in various provinces) and estimating likely resources required, to provide information on gaps.
On page 19
Resource use based on study by Putthasri (2009) included in this review.
On page 51
The basis for the Putthasri 15 study was survey data that were lower in quality in the hierarchy of observational studies and were downgraded accordingly.
On page 21
Three studies provide information on resource use alone, 9,11,15 which is difficult to interpret without the context of the clinical benefits, and based on the compliance with recommendations on PPE use provided by public health agencies.
On page 21
15. Putthasri W, Lertiendumrong J, Chompook P, Tangcharoensathien V, Coker R. Capacity of Thailand to contain an emerging influenza pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Mar [cited 2011 Aug 8];15(3):423-32. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2666290
Putthasri (2009) 15 The authors of this study sought to evaluate the resources and capacity of the health care system in Thailand to contain an influenza pandemic, by assessing the current level of resource available (through surveys to health care institutions and providers in various provinces) and estimating likely resources required, to provide information on gaps.
On page 19
Resource use based on study by Putthasri (2009) included in this review.
On page 51
Author(s): Karen Lee, MA; Vijay Shukla, PhD; Reviewer(s): John Conly, MD; Carmem Pessoa-Silva, MD, PhD Date: 2011-04-25 Question: Should health system resources be used for potential influenza pandemic? Settings: Any setting Bibliography: Putthasri et al. Capacity of Thailand to contain an emerging influenza pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis 2009; 15(3):423-432
Vaccine (Elsevier BV)
Noelle-Angelique M. Molinari et al. 2007
Silka (2003) 45 Los Angeles, California, US Setting: emergency department Sartor (2002) 46 France Setting: hospital Davis (2001) 47 Hawaii, US Setting: Medicare Managed Care Plan Cox (2000) 48 US Setting: community Cox (2000) 49 US Setting: community and hospital Mauskopf (1999) 50 US Setting: community Szucs (1999) 51 Germany Setting: community and hospital Canadian Institute for Health Information (2010) 52 Canada Setting: hospital Molinari (2007) 21 * US Setting: community and hospital Krumkamp (2011) 53 Thailand (2 provinces: Nakhon, Phichit) Setting: hospital cost of in- and outpatient care for influenza pneumonia Population: Patients presenting to ED with illness resulting from influenza Time frame: Oct 1997 to March 2000 Study: Investigate ED resource demand during widespread influenza activity Population: 9 patients with ILI; 5 staff with ILI Time frame: Feb 28 to March 6, 1999 Study: Prospective cohort study to capture hospital charge
On page 51
Information on medical costs was largely obtained from a published article by Molinari, 21 which evaluated the annual impact of seasonal influenza in the US based on health insurance claims.
On page 19
Canada Setting: hospital Molinari (2007) 21 * US Setting: community and hospital Krumkamp (2011) 53 Thailand (2 provinces: Nakhon, Phichit) Setting: hospital
On page 51
21. Molinari NA, Ortega-Sanchez IR, Messonnier ML, Thompson WW, Wortley PM, Weintraub E, et al. The annual impact of seasonal influenza in the US: measuring disease burden and costs. Vaccine. 2007 Jun 28;25(27):5086-96.
Silka (2003) 45 Los Angeles, California, US Setting: emergency department Sartor (2002) 46 France Setting: hospital Davis (2001) 47 Hawaii, US Setting: Medicare Managed Care Plan Cox (2000) 48 US Setting: community Cox (2000) 49 US Setting: community and hospital Mauskopf (1999) 50 US Setting: community Szucs (1999) 51 Germany Setting: community and hospital Canadian Institute for Health Information (2010) 52 Canada Setting: hospital Molinari (2007) 21 * US Setting: community and hospital Krumkamp (2011) 53 Thailand (2 provinces: Nakhon, Phichit) Setting: hospital cost of in- and outpatient care for influenza pneumonia Population: Patients presenting to ED with illness resulting from influenza Time frame: Oct 1997 to March 2000 Study: Investigate ED resource demand during widespread influenza activity Population: 9 patients with ILI; 5 staff with ILI Time frame: Feb 28 to March 6, 1999 Study: Prospective cohort study to capture hospital charge
On page 51
4 Molinari N-A et al. The annual impact of seasonal influenza in the US: Measuring disease burden and cost. Vaccine 2007;25:5086-5096.
Nature (Springer Nature)
Neil M. Ferguson et al. 2005
information that was used in simulation exercises using control scenarios developed by Thailand’s Department of Disease Control (scenarios align with WHO Phase 4, human-to-human transmission from case-patients to caregivers, and WHO Phase 5, human-to-human transmission in localized clusters) 22 to derive the likely resources required to control an outbreak.
On page 20
22. Ferguson NM, Cummings DA, Cauchemez S, Fraser C, Riley S, Meeyai A, et al. Strategies for containing an emerging influenza pandemic in Southeast Asia. Nature. 2005 Sep 8;437(7056):209- 14.
Journal of the American College of Radiology (Elsevier BV)
James R.A. Schafer et al. 2010
APPENDIX 4: INFORMATION ON EXCLUDED STUDIES Reference Details Reason for exclusion H1N1 Ong (2010) 23 Malaysia Setting: hospital Schafer (2010) 24 Michigan, US Setting: hospital SARS Chang (2004) 25 Taiwan Setting: hospital/community Ko (2004) 26 Taipei, Taiwan Setting: community Visentin (2009) 27 Toronto, Canada Setting: community Mubayi (2010) 28 Taiwan; Hong Kong; Singapore; Toronto, Canada Setting: community Influenza Hassan (2009) 29 US Setting: hospital Bardowski (2010) 30 US Setting: hospital Ampofo (2006) 31 US Setting: hospital Keren (2006) 32 US Setting: hospital (Children’s Hospital of
On page 49
24. Schafer JR, Agarwal P, Kazerooni EA. Radiology resource utilization during an H1N1 influenza outbreak. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Jan;7(1):28-32.
American Journal of Public Health (American Public Health Association)
Hong-Jen Chang et al. 2004
APPENDIX 4: INFORMATION ON EXCLUDED STUDIES Reference Details Reason for exclusion H1N1 Ong (2010) 23 Malaysia Setting: hospital Schafer (2010) 24 Michigan, US Setting: hospital SARS Chang (2004) 25 Taiwan Setting: hospital/community Ko (2004) 26 Taipei, Taiwan Setting: community Visentin (2009) 27 Toronto, Canada Setting: community Mubayi (2010) 28 Taiwan; Hong Kong; Singapore; Toronto, Canada Setting: community Influenza Hassan (2009) 29 US Setting: hospital Bardowski (2010) 30 US Setting: hospital Ampofo (2006) 31 US Setting: hospital Keren (2006) 32 US Setting: hospital (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; 418 beds) Population: 27 million, gene
On page 49
25. Chang HJ, Huang N, Lee CH, Hsu YJ, Hsieh CJ, Chou YJ. The impact of the SARS epidemic on the utilization of medical services: SARS and the fear of SARS. Am J Public Health [Internet]. 2004 Apr [cited 2011 Aug 8];94(4):562-4. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448298/pdf/0940562.pdf
Ko (2004) 26 Taipei, Taiwan Setting: community Visentin (2009) 27 Toronto, Canada Setting: community
On page 49
26. Ko PC, Chen WJ, Ma MH, Chiang WC, Su CP, Huang CH, et al. Emergency medical services utilization during an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the incidence of SARS-associated coronavirus infection among emergency medical technicians. Acad Emerg Med [Internet]. 2004 Sep [cited 2011 Aug 8];11(9):903-11. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1197/j.aem.2004.03.016/pdf
APPENDIX 4: INFORMATION ON EXCLUDED STUDIES Reference Details Reason for exclusion H1N1 Ong (2010) 23 Malaysia Setting: hospital Schafer (2010) 24 Michigan, US Setting: hospital SARS Chang (2004) 25 Taiwan Setting: hospital/community Ko (2004) 26 Taipei, Taiwan Setting: community Visentin (2009) 27 Toronto, Canada Setting: community Mubayi (2010) 28 Taiwan; Hong Kong; Singapore; Toronto, Canada Setting: community Influenza Hassan (2009) 29 US Setting: hospital Bardowski (2010) 30 US Setting: hospital Ampofo (2006) 31 US Setting: hospital Keren (2006) 32 US Setting: hospital (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; 418 beds) Population: 27 million, general pop.
On page 49
Ko (2004) 26 Taipei, Taiwan Setting: community Visentin (2009) 27 Toronto, Canada Setting: community
On page 49
27. Visentin LM, Bondy SJ, Schwartz B, Morrison LJ. Use of personal protective equipment during infectious disease outbreak and nonoutbreak conditions: a survey of emergency medical technicians. Can J Emerg Med [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2011 Aug 8];11(1):44-56. Available from: http://www.cjem-online.ca/sites/default/files/CJEM_Vol_11,_No_1,_p44(1).pdf
Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering (American Institute of Mathematical Sciences (AIMS))
Anuj Mubayi et al. 2010
APPENDIX 4: INFORMATION ON EXCLUDED STUDIES Reference Details Reason for exclusion H1N1 Ong (2010) 23 Malaysia Setting: hospital Schafer (2010) 24 Michigan, US Setting: hospital SARS Chang (2004) 25 Taiwan Setting: hospital/community Ko (2004) 26 Taipei, Taiwan Setting: community Visentin (2009) 27 Toronto, Canada Setting: community Mubayi (2010) 28 Taiwan; Hong Kong; Singapore; Toronto, Canada Setting: community Influenza Hassan (2009) 29 US Setting: hospital Bardowski (2010) 30 US Setting: hospital Ampofo (2006) 31 US Setting: hospital Keren (2006) 32 US Setting: hospital (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; 418 beds) Population: 27 million, general pop.
On page 49
Mubayi (2010) 28 Taiwan; Hong Kong; Singapore; Toronto, Canada Setting: community Influenza Hassan (2009) 29 US Setting: hospital
On page 49
28. Mubayi A, Zaleta CK, Martcheva M, Castillo-Chavez C. A cost-based comparison of quarantine strategies for new emerging diseases. Math Biosci Eng [Internet]. 2010 Jul;7(3):687-717.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine (Elsevier BV)
Fauziya Hassan et al. 2009
APPENDIX 4: INFORMATION ON EXCLUDED STUDIES Reference Details Reason for exclusion H1N1 Ong (2010) 23 Malaysia Setting: hospital Schafer (2010) 24 Michigan, US Setting: hospital SARS Chang (2004) 25 Taiwan Setting: hospital/community Ko (2004) 26 Taipei, Taiwan Setting: community Visentin (2009) 27 Toronto, Canada Setting: community Mubayi (2010) 28 Taiwan; Hong Kong; Singapore; Toronto, Canada Setting: community Influenza Hassan (2009) 29 US Setting: hospital Bardowski (2010) 30 US Setting: hospital Ampofo (2006) 31 US Setting: hospital Keren (2006) 32 US Setting: hospital (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; 418 beds) Population: 27 million, general pop.
On page 49
Mubayi (2010) 28 Taiwan; Hong Kong; Singapore; Toronto, Canada Setting: community Influenza Hassan (2009) 29 US Setting: hospital
On page 49
29. Hassan F, Lewis TC, Davis MM, Gebremariam A, Dombkowski K. Hospital utilization and costs among children with influenza, 2003. Am J Prev Med. 2009 Apr;36(4):292-6.
30. Bardowski L, Coomer C, Lavin MA, Sama P, Analytics C, Bolon M, et al. Impact of enhanced isolation precautions for influenza beyond nationally established recommendations [abstract]. Am J Infect Control. 2010;38(5):E64. (Presented at APIC 37th Annual Educational Conference and International Meeting New Orleans, LA United States;20100711;- 20100715).
nce Details Reason for exclusion H1N1 Ong (2010) 23 Malaysia Setting: hospital Schafer (2010) 24 Michigan, US Setting: hospital SARS Chang (2004) 25 Taiwan Setting: hospital/community Ko (2004) 26 Taipei, Taiwan Setting: community Visentin (2009) 27 Toronto, Canada Setting: community Mubayi (2010) 28 Taiwan; Hong Kong; Singapore; Toronto, Canada Setting: community Influenza Hassan (2009) 29 US Setting: hospital Bardowski (2010) 30 US Setting: hospital Ampofo (2006) 31 US Setting: hospital Keren (2006) 32 US Setting: hospital (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; 418 beds) Population: 27 million, general pop.
On page 49
31. Ampofo K, Gesteland PH, Bender J, Mills M, Daly J, Samore M, et al. Epidemiology, complications, and cost of hospitalization in children with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2006 Dec [cited 2011 Aug 8];118(6):2409-17. Available from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/118/6/2409
PEDIATRICS (American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP))
R. Keren et al. 2006
Ong (2010) 23 Malaysia Setting: hospital Schafer (2010) 24 Michigan, US Setting: hospital SARS Chang (2004) 25 Taiwan Setting: hospital/community Ko (2004) 26 Taipei, Taiwan Setting: community Visentin (2009) 27 Toronto, Canada Setting: community Mubayi (2010) 28 Taiwan; Hong Kong; Singapore; Toronto, Canada Setting: community Influenza Hassan (2009) 29 US Setting: hospital Bardowski (2010) 30 US Setting: hospital Ampofo (2006) 31 US Setting: hospital Keren (2006) 32 US Setting: hospital (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; 418 beds) Population: 27 million, general pop.
On page 49
Keren (2006) 32 US Setting: hospital (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; 418 beds)
On page 49
32. Keren R, Zaoutis TE, Saddlemire S, Luan XQ, Coffin SE. Direct medical cost of influenza-related hospitalizations in children. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2006 Nov [cited 2011 Aug 8];118(5):e1321- e1327. Available from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/118/5/e1321
Xue (2010) 33 Population: Norwegian population Study reported only total costs Physical Interventions to Interrupt or Reduce the Spread of Respiratory 39 Viruses — Resource Use Implications Reference Details Reason for exclusion Norway Setting: Hospital and community Schull (2005) 34 Canada Setting: community/ER Carroll (2001) 35 US Setting: Long-term care facility (551 patients; 4 facilities) Sessa (2001) 36 Italy Setting: community Sander (2009) 37 US Set
On page 49
Xue (2010) 33 Population: Norwegian population Study reported only total costs
On page 49
33. Xue Y, Kristiansen IS, de Blasio BF. Modeling the cost of influenza: the impact of missing costs of unreported complications and sick leave. BMC Public Health [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2011 Aug 8];10(1):724. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2458-10-724.pdf
Academic Emergency Medicine (Wiley)
M. J. Schull 2005
Reference Details Reason for exclusion Norway Setting: Hospital and community Schull (2005) 34 Canada Setting: community/ER Carroll (2001) 35 US Setting: Long-term care facility (551 patients; 4 facilities) Sessa (2001) 36 Italy Setting: community Sander (2009) 37 US Setting: community Levy (1996) 38 France Setting: community Fairbrother (2010) 39 US Setting: community and hospital Bridges (2000) 40 Dearborn, Michigan, US Setting: community — full-time employees at Ford Motor Co.
On page 50
Norway Setting: Hospital and community Schull (2005) 34 Canada Setting: community/ER
On page 50
34. Schull MJ, Mamdani MM, Fang J. Influenza and emergency department utilization by elders. Acad Emerg Med [Internet]. 2005 Apr [cited 2011 Aug 8];12(4):338-44. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1197/j.aem.2004.11.020/pdf
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy (Oxford University Press (OUP))
Norman V. Carroll et al. 2001
Reference Details Reason for exclusion Norway Setting: Hospital and community Schull (2005) 34 Canada Setting: community/ER Carroll (2001) 35 US Setting: Long-term care facility (551 patients; 4 facilities) Sessa (2001) 36 Italy Setting: community Sander (2009) 37 US Setting: community Levy (1996) 38 France Setting: community Fairbrother (2010) 39 US Setting: community and hospital Bridges (2000) 40 Dearborn, Michigan, US Setting: community — full-time employees at Ford Motor Co.
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Carroll (2001) 35 US Setting: Long-term care facility (551 patients; 4 facilities) Sessa (2001) 36 Italy Setting: community
On page 50
35. Carroll NV, Delafuente JC, McClure KL, Weakley DF, Khan ZM, Cox FM. Economic burden of influenza-like illness in long-term-care facilities. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2001 Jun 15;58(12):1133-8.
Reference Details Reason for exclusion Norway Setting: Hospital and community Schull (2005) 34 Canada Setting: community/ER Carroll (2001) 35 US Setting: Long-term care facility (551 patients; 4 facilities) Sessa (2001) 36 Italy Setting: community Sander (2009) 37 US Setting: community Levy (1996) 38 France Setting: community Fairbrother (2010) 39 US Setting: community and hospital Bridges (2000) 40 Dearborn, Michigan, US Setting: community — full-time employees at Ford Motor Co.
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Carroll (2001) 35 US Setting: Long-term care facility (551 patients; 4 facilities) Sessa (2001) 36 Italy Setting: community
On page 50
36. Sessa A, Costa B, Bamfi F, Bettoncelli G, D'Ambrosio G. The incidence, natural history and associated outcomes of influenza-like illness and clinical influenza in Italy. Fam Pract [Internet]. 2001 Dec [cited 2011 Aug 8];18(6):629-34. Available from: http://fampra.oxfordjournals.org/content/18/6/629.full.pdf+html
Reference Details Reason for exclusion Norway Setting: Hospital and community Schull (2005) 34 Canada Setting: community/ER Carroll (2001) 35 US Setting: Long-term care facility (551 patients; 4 facilities) Sessa (2001) 36 Italy Setting: community Sander (2009) 37 US Setting: community Levy (1996) 38 France Setting: community Fairbrother (2010) 39 US Setting: community and hospital Bridges (2000) 40 Dearborn, Michigan, US Setting: community — full-time employees at Ford Motor Co.
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37. Sander B, Nizam A, Garrison LP, Jr., Postma MJ, Halloran ME, Longini IM. Economic evaluation of influenza pandemic mitigation strategies in the United States using a stochastic microsimulation transmission model. Value Health. 2009 Mar;12(2):226-33.
PharmacoEconomics (Springer Nature)
Emile Levy 1996
Reference Details Reason for exclusion Norway Setting: Hospital and community Schull (2005) 34 Canada Setting: community/ER Carroll (2001) 35 US Setting: Long-term care facility (551 patients; 4 facilities) Sessa (2001) 36 Italy Setting: community Sander (2009) 37 US Setting: community Levy (1996) 38 France Setting: community Fairbrother (2010) 39 US Setting: community and hospital Bridges (2000) 40 Dearborn, Michigan, US Setting: community — full-time employees at Ford Motor Co.
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38. Levy E. French economic evaluations of influenza and influenza vaccination. Pharmacoeconomics. 1996;9(Suppl 3):62-6.
Reference Details Reason for exclusion Norway Setting: Hospital and community Schull (2005) 34 Canada Setting: community/ER Carroll (2001) 35 US Setting: Long-term care facility (551 patients; 4 facilities) Sessa (2001) 36 Italy Setting: community Sander (2009) 37 US Setting: community Levy (1996) 38 France Setting: community Fairbrother (2010) 39 US Setting: community and hospital Bridges (2000) 40 Dearborn, Michigan, US Setting: community — full-time employees at Ford Motor Co.
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39. Fairbrother G, Cassedy A, Ortega-Sanchez IR, Szilagyi PG, Edwards KM, Molinari NA, et al. High costs of influenza: direct medical costs of influenza disease in young children. Vaccine. 2010 Jul 12;28(31):4913-9.
JAMA (American Medical Association (AMA))
Carolyn Buxton Bridges et al. 2000
Reference Details Reason for exclusion Norway Setting: Hospital and community Schull (2005) 34 Canada Setting: community/ER Carroll (2001) 35 US Setting: Long-term care facility (551 patients; 4 facilities) Sessa (2001) 36 Italy Setting: community Sander (2009) 37 US Setting: community Levy (1996) 38 France Setting: community Fairbrother (2010) 39 US Setting: community and hospital Bridges (2000) 40 Dearborn, Michigan, US Setting: community — full-time employees at Ford Motor Co.
On page 50
Silka (2003) 45 Los Angeles, California, US Setting: emergency department Sartor (2002) 46 France Setting: hospital Davis (2001) 47 Hawaii, US Setting: Medicare Managed Care Plan Cox (2000) 48 US Setting: community Cox (2000) 49 US Setting: community and hospital Mauskopf (1999) 50 US Setting: community Szucs (1999) 51 Germany Setting: community and hospital Canadian Institute for Health Information (2010) 52 Canada Setting: hospital Molinari (2007) 21 * US Setting: community and hospital Krumkamp (2011) 53 Thailand (2 provinces: Nakhon, Phichit) Setting: hospital cost of in- and outpatient care for influenza pneumonia Population: Patients
On page 51
Silka (2003) 45 Los Angeles, California, US Setting: emergency department Sartor (2002) 46 France Setting: hospital Davis (2001) 47 Hawaii, US Setting: Medicare Managed Care Plan Cox (2000) 48 US Setting: community Cox (2000) 49 US Setting: community and hospital Mauskopf (1999) 50 US Setting: community Szucs (1999) 51 Germany Setting: community and hospital Canadian Institute for Health Information (2010) 52 Canada Setting: hospital Molinari (2007) 21 * US Setting: community and hospital Krumkamp (2011) 53 Thailand (2 provinces: Nakhon, Phichit) Setting: hospital cost of in- and outpatient care for influenza pneumonia Population: Patients presenting to ED with illness resulting fro
On page 51
Bridges (2000) 40 Dearborn, Michigan, US Setting: community — full-time employees at Ford Motor Co.
On page 50
40. Bridges CB, Thompson WW, Meltzer MI, Reeve GR, Talamonti WJ, Cox NJ, et al. Effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza vaccination of healthy working adults: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2000 Oct 4;284(13):1655-63.
n for exclusion Norway Setting: Hospital and community Schull (2005) 34 Canada Setting: community/ER Carroll (2001) 35 US Setting: Long-term care facility (551 patients; 4 facilities) Sessa (2001) 36 Italy Setting: community Sander (2009) 37 US Setting: community Levy (1996) 38 France Setting: community Fairbrother (2010) 39 US Setting: community and hospital Bridges (2000) 40 Dearborn, Michigan, US Setting: community — full-time employees at Ford Motor Co. Lee (2010) 41 US Setting: community and hospital Newall (2008) 42 Australia Setting: community and hospital Hak et al (2006) 43 Netherlands Setting: community Time frame: 2005-2006 flu seasons Study: Assessment of Norwegian Institute for PUBLIC Health utilization data to determine total cost Population: General population, and elderly patients with respiratory or cardiopulmonary conditions, from 20 emergency departments, serving 2.3 million Time frame: Jan 1996 to April 1999 Study: Retrospecti
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Lee (2010) 41 US Setting: community and hospital
On page 50
41. Lee BY, McGlone SM, Bailey RR, Wiringa AE, Zimmer SM, Smith KJ, et al. To test or to treat? An analysis of influenza testing and Antiviral treatment strategies using economic computer modeling. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2010 Nov 15];5(6):e11284. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2890406/pdf/pone.0011284.pdf
Vaccine (Elsevier BV)
Anthony T. Newall et al. 2008
Lee (2010) 41 US Setting: community and hospital Newall (2008) 42 Australia Setting: community and hospital Hak et al (2006) 43 Netherlands Setting: community Time frame: 2005-2006 flu seasons Study: Assessment of Norwegian Institute for PUBLIC Health utilization data to determine total cost Population: General population, and elderly patients with respiratory or cardiopulmonary conditions, from 20 emergency departments, serving 2.3 million Time frame: Jan 1996 to April 1999 Study: Retrospective time series analysis to assess emergency department use i
On page 50
42. Newall AT, Scuffham PA. Influenza-related disease: the cost to the Australian healthcare system. Vaccine. 2008 Dec 9;26(52):6818-23.
Lee (2010) 41 US Setting: community and hospital Newall (2008) 42 Australia Setting: community and hospital Hak et al (2006) 43 Netherlands Setting: community Time frame: 2005-2006 flu seasons Study: Assessment of Norwegian Institute for PUBLIC Health utilization data to determine total cost Population: General population, and elderly patients with respiratory or cardiopulmonary conditions, from 20 emergency departments, serving 2.3 million Time frame: Jan 1996 to April 1999 Study: Retrospective time series analysis to assess emergency department use in Toronto Population: Elderly 65+ year-olds in Richmond, Virginia Time
On page 50
43. Hak E, Meijboom MJ, Buskens E. Modelling the health-economic impact of the next influenza pandemic in the Netherlands. Vaccine. 2006 Nov 10;24(44-46):6756-60.
Vaccine (Elsevier BV)
James Mark Simmerman et al. 2006
Study: Decision type model to estimate total health care burden and direct medical costs during the next pandemic Simmerman (2006) 44 Thailand Setting: community and hospital Population: Patients with influenza pneumonia Time frame: Sept 2003 to Aug 2004 Study: Population-based surveillance system; patient records were reviewed to obtain information on the total Study reported only total costs; did not consider physical interventions.
On page 51
44. Simmerman JM, Lertiendumrong J, Dowell SF, Uyeki T, Olsen SJ, Chittaganpitch M, et al. The cost of influenza in Thailand. Vaccine. 2006 May 15;24(20):4417-26.
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine (Elsevier BV)
Paul A Silka et al. 2003
Silka (2003) 45 Los Angeles, California, US Setting: emergency department Sartor (2002) 46 France Setting: hospital Davis (2001) 47 Hawaii, US Setting: Medicare Managed Care Plan Cox (2000) 48 US Setting: community Cox (2000) 49 US Setting: community and hospital Mauskopf (1999) 50 US Setting: community Szucs (1999) 51 Germany Setting: community and hospital Canadian Institute for Health Information (2010) 52 Canada Setting: hospital Molinari (2007) 21 * US Settin
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Silka (2003) 45 Los Angeles, California, US Setting: emergency department Sartor (2002) 46 France Setting: hospital
On page 51
45. Silka PA, Geiderman JM, Goldberg JB, Kim LP. Demand on ED resources during periods of widespread influenza activity. Am J Emerg Med. 2003 Nov;21(7):534-9.
Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology (Cambridge University Press (CUP))
Catherine Sartor et al. 2002
Silka (2003) 45 Los Angeles, California, US Setting: emergency department Sartor (2002) 46 France Setting: hospital Davis (2001) 47 Hawaii, US Setting: Medicare Managed Care Plan Cox (2000) 48 US Setting: community Cox (2000) 49 US Setting: community and hospital Mauskopf (1999) 50 US Setting: community Szucs (1999) 51 Germany Setting: community and hospital Canadian Institute for Health Information (2010) 52 Canada Setting: hospital Molinari (2007) 21 * US Setting: community and hospital Krumkamp (2011) 53 Thailand (2 provinces: Nakhon,
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Silka (2003) 45 Los Angeles, California, US Setting: emergency department Sartor (2002) 46 France Setting: hospital
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46. Sartor C, Zandotti C, Romain F, Jacomo V, Simon S, tlan-Gepner C, et al. Disruption of services in an internal medicine unit due to a nosocomial influenza outbreak. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002;23(10):615-9.
Medical Care (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health))
James W. Davis et al. 2001
Silka (2003) 45 Los Angeles, California, US Setting: emergency department Sartor (2002) 46 France Setting: hospital Davis (2001) 47 Hawaii, US Setting: Medicare Managed Care Plan Cox (2000) 48 US Setting: community Cox (2000) 49 US Setting: community and hospital Mauskopf (1999) 50 US Setting: community Szucs (1999) 51 Germany Setting: community and hospital Canadian Institute for Health Information (2010) 52 Canada Setting: hospital Molinari (2007) 21 * US Setting: community and hospital Krumkamp (2011) 53 Thailand (2 provinces: Nakhon, Phichit) Setting: hospital cost of in- and
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Davis (2001) 47 Hawaii, US Setting: Medicare Managed Care Plan Cox (2000) 48 US Setting: community
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47. Davis JW, Lee E, Taira DA, Chung RS. Influenza vaccination, hospitalizations, and costs among members of a Medicare managed care plan. Med Care. 2001 Dec;39(12):1273-80.
PharmacoEconomics (Springer Nature)
Josephine A. Mauskopf et al. 1999
Silka (2003) 45 Los Angeles, California, US Setting: emergency department Sartor (2002) 46 France Setting: hospital Davis (2001) 47 Hawaii, US Setting: Medicare Managed Care Plan Cox (2000) 48 US Setting: community Cox (2000) 49 US Setting: community and hospital Mauskopf (1999) 50 US Setting: community Szucs (1999) 51 Germany Setting: community and hospital Canadian Institute for Health Information (2010) 52 Canada Setting: hospital Molinari (2007) 21 * US Setting: community and hospital Krumkamp (2011) 53 Thailand (2 provinces: Nakhon, Phichit) Setting: hospital cost of in- and outpatient care for influenza pneumonia Population: Patients presenting to ED with illness resulting from influenza Time frame: Oct 1997 to March 2000 Study: Investig
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50. Mauskopf JA, Cates SC, Griffin AD. A pharmacoeconomic model for the treatment of influenza. Pharmacoeconomics. 1999;16(Suppl 1):73-84.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (Oxford University Press (OUP))
T. Szucs 1999
Silka (2003) 45 Los Angeles, California, US Setting: emergency department Sartor (2002) 46 France Setting: hospital Davis (2001) 47 Hawaii, US Setting: Medicare Managed Care Plan Cox (2000) 48 US Setting: community Cox (2000) 49 US Setting: community and hospital Mauskopf (1999) 50 US Setting: community Szucs (1999) 51 Germany Setting: community and hospital Canadian Institute for Health Information (2010) 52 Canada Setting: hospital Molinari (2007) 21 * US Setting: community and hospital Krumkamp (2011) 53 Thailand (2 provinces: Nakhon, Phichit) Setting: hospital cost of in- and outpatient care for influenza pneumonia Population: Patients presenting to ED with illness resulting from influenza Time frame: Oct 1997 to March 2000 Study: Investigate ED resource demand during widespread influ
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51. Szucs T. The socio-economic burden of influenza. J Antimicrob Chemother [Internet]. 1999 Nov [cited 2011 Aug 8];44(Suppl B):11-5. Available from: http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/44/suppl_2/11.full.pdf+html
a, US Setting: emergency department Sartor (2002) 46 France Setting: hospital Davis (2001) 47 Hawaii, US Setting: Medicare Managed Care Plan Cox (2000) 48 US Setting: community Cox (2000) 49 US Setting: community and hospital Mauskopf (1999) 50 US Setting: community Szucs (1999) 51 Germany Setting: community and hospital Canadian Institute for Health Information (2010) 52 Canada Setting: hospital Molinari (2007) 21 * US Setting: community and hospital Krumkamp (2011) 53 Thailand (2 provinces: Nakhon, Phichit) Setting: hospital cost of in- and outpatient care for influenza pneumonia Population: Patients presenting to ED with illness resulting from influenza Time frame: Oct 1997 to March 2000 Study: Investigate ED resource demand during widespread influenza activity Population: 9 patients with ILI; 5 staff with ILI Time frame: Feb 28 to March 6, 1999 Study: Prospective cohort study to capture hospital charges associated with treatment of patients Population: Al
On page 51
53. Krumkamp R, Kretzschmar M, Rudge JW, Ahmad A, Hanvoravongchai P, Westenhoefer J, et al. Health service resource needs for pandemic influenza in developing countries: a linked transmission dynamics, interventions and resource demand model. Epidemiol Infect. 2011 Jan;139(1):59-67.