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Halima Dawood at University of KwaZulu-Natal
Jeremy Nel at University of the Witwatersrand
Halima Dawood at University of KwaZulu-Natal
Jeremy Nel at University of the Witwatersrand

All research cited by this document (explore the cited scholarly articles)

Kirti R, et al., 2020. 13 Ivermectin as a potential treatment for mild to moderate COVID-19: A double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. MedRxiv, 9 January 2021 https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.01.05.21249310v1
International Journal of Sciences (Alkhaer Publications)
Aijaz Zeeshan Khan Chachar et al. 2020
Ivermectin in SARS-CoV- 2/COVID-19 Patients, International journal of sciences, https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/article/2378
IMC Journal of Medical Science (Bangladesh Journals Online (JOL))
Chinmay Saha Podder et al. 2021
Podder et al., 2020. 15 Outcome of ivermectin treated mild to moderate COVID-19 cases: a singlecentre, open-label, randomised controlled study. IMC Journal of Medical Science, 3 September 2020 http://www.imcjms.com/registration/journal_abstract/353
https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3714649
Krolewiecki et al., 2020. 16 Antiviral Effect of High- Dose Ivermectin in Adults with COVID-19: A Pilot Randomised, Controlled, Open Label, Multicentre Trial. SSRN, 11 November 2020 10.2139/ssrn.3714649
International Journal of Infectious Diseases (Elsevier BV)
Sabeena Ahmed et al. 2021
Ahmed S et al., 2020. 17 A five day course of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 may reduce the duration of illness. International journal of infectious diseases, 26 Nov 2020 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.11.191
Chaccour et al. 19 The effect of early treatment with ivermectin on viral load, symptoms and humoral response in patients with mild COVID- 19: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. EClinicalMedicine. 2021 Feb;32:100720. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33495752/
(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)
Karamat Hussain Shah Bukhari et al. 2021
Shah Bukhari et al., 2021. Efficacy of Ivermectin in COVID-19 Patients with Mild to Moderate Disease. MedRxiv, 5 February 2021. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.02.21250840v1
JAMA (American Medical Association (AMA))
Eduardo López-Medina et al. 2021
With Mild COVID-19. JAMA, 4 March 2021 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2777389
BMC Infectious Diseases (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)
Nurullah Okumuş et al. 2021
Okumus et al., 2021. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of adding ivermectin to treatment in severe COVID-19 patients. BMC Infectious Diseases, 4 May 2021. https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-021-06104-9
Beltran-Gonzalez et al., 2021. Efficacy and safety of Ivermectin and Hydroxychloroquine in patients with severe COVID-19. A randomized controlled trial. MedRxiv, 23 February 2021. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.18.21252037v1
Shahbaznejad et al., 2021. Effects of Ivermectin in Patients With COVID-19: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial. Clinical Therapeutics (article in press), accepted for publication April 2021 https://www.clinicaltherapeutics.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0149-2918%2821%2900201-0
Abd-Elsalam et al, 2021. Clinical study evaluating the efficacy of ivermectin in COVID-19 treatment: A randomized controlled study. J Med Virol. 2021 Jun 2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34076901/
Mahmud et al, 20 Ivermectin in combination with doxycycline for treating COVID-19 symptoms: a randomized trial. Jr of INt Med Res, May 2021. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0300060 5211013550
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.10.26.20219345v1
International Journal of Infectious Diseases (Elsevier BV)
Sabeena Ahmed et al. 2021
Ahmed S et al. 17 A five day course of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 may reduce the duration of illness. International journal of infectious diseases, 26 Nov 2020 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.11.191
Babalola et al, 22 Ivermectin shows clinical benefits in mild to moderate Covid19 disease: A randomised controlled double blind dose response study in Lagos. MedRxiv, 6 January 2021 https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.01.05.21249131v1
(Research Square Platform LLC)
Ahmed Elgazzar et al. 2020
Elgazzar et al. 24 Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin for Treatment and prophylaxis of COVID-19 Pandemic. Research Square 28 Dec 2020. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-100956/v3
1 Ghazy, R.M., Almaghraby, A., Shaaban, R. et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis on chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as monotherapy or combined with azithromycin in COVID-19 treatment. Sci Rep 10, 22139 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77748-x
Beltran-Gonzalez et al., 2021. Efficacy and safety of Ivermectin and Hydroxychloroquine in patients with severe COVID-19. A randomized controlled trial. MedRxiv, 23 February 2021. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.18.21252037v1
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/20477724.2021.1890887
24.2021.1890887 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/20477724.2021.1890887
Eurasian Journal of Medicine and Oncology (Kare Publishing)
abu taiub mohammed mohiuddin chowdhury 2021
https://ejmo.org/10.14744/ejmo.2021.16263/
Cochrane living syntheses https://covid-nma.com/ COVID-NMA is an international research initiative supported by the WHO and Cochrane. Provides a living mapping of COVID-19 trials available through interactive data visualizations and conducts living evidence synthesis on preventive interventions, treatments and vaccines for COVID-19. Living review protocol: https://zenodo.org/record/4018607#.YAq8HegzbIU
2. Bartoszko JJ et al. Prophylaxis against covid-19: living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2021 Apr 26;373:n949. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33903131/
4. Alex Castaneda-Sabogal et al. Outcomes of Ivermectin in the treatment of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis, MedRxiv, January 2021. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.01.26.21250420v1
Pharmacological Reports (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)
Chia Siang Kow et al. 2021
5. Kow CS et al. The association between the use of ivermectin and mortality in patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis. Pharmacol Rep. 2021 Mar 29:1–7. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33779964/
American Journal of Therapeutics (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health))
Pierre Kory et al. 2021
7. Kory P et al. Review of the Emerging Evidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID- 19. American Journal of Therapeutics. 2021;28(3). https://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MJT.0000000000001377
Data from RCTs of day 7 viral clearance with and without ivermectin were pooled to assess publication bias of the RCTs, using STATA version 17 8 – see appendix 2.
On page 3
8. Kinobe RT, Owens L. A systematic review of experimental evidence for antiviral effects of ivermectin and an in-silico analysis of ivermectin's possible mode of action against SARS-CoV-2. Fundamental & clinical pharmacology. 2021;35(2):260-276. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33427370/
Drug Safety (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)
Subhrojyoti Bhowmick et al. 2021
9. Bhowmick S, et al. Safety and Efficacy of Ivermectin and Doxycycline Monotherapy and in Combination in the Treatment of COVID- 19: A Scoping Review. Drug Saf. 2021 Apr 16:1–10. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33864232/
10. Rodríguez-Gutiérrez R et al. Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of Patients with SARS-CoV-2: A Living Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. SSRN, March 2021. https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3802499
11. Alexander et al. Early Multidrug Outpatient Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 Infection (COVID-19) and Reduced Mortality Among Nursing Home Residents. medRxiv. 1 February 2021. https://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.28.21250706
12. Lawrie, T. Ivermectin reduces the risk of death from COVID-19 -a rapid review and meta-analysis in support of the recommendation of the Front Line COVID-19 Critical Care Alliance. ResearchGate - Evidence-based Medicine Consultancy Ltd. January 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.27751.88486
14. Kalfas et al. The therapeutic potential of ivermectin for COVID-19: a review of mechanisms and evidence . medRxiv. 4 December 2020. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.11.30.20236570v1
16. Kim MS, et al, Comparative efficacy and safety of pharmacological interventions for the treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. PLoS medicine. 2020;17(12):e1003501. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33378357/
Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences (University of Alberta Libraries)
Biswa Mohan Padhy et al. 2020
18. Padhy B.M., Meher B.R., Mohanty R.R., Das S.. Therapeutic potential of ivermectin as add on treatment in COVID 19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 23 November 2020;23:462-469. https://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps31457
19. Gonçalves . Therapeutic potential of ivermectin for COVID-19. Authorea. May 26, 2020. Preprint, currently under review and later RCTs have been https://doi.org/10.22541/au.159050476.60928563published.
Research, Society and Development (Research, Society and Development)
José Gustavo de Aguiar Lopes et al. 2020
23. de Aguiar Lopes JG, et al. Ivermectina como possível aliado no tratamento da COVID-19: perspectivas acerca de sua ação antiviral. Non-RCT studies included in this study and later RCTs have been Research, Society and Development. 2020;9(8). https://doi.org/10.33448/RSD-V9I8.6234published.
24. Roman YM, et al. Ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Systematic review and meta-analysis included studies up to 22 medRxiv. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.05.21.21257595
25. Galan LEB, et al. Phase 2 randomized study on chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine or ivermectin in hospitalized patients with severe Phase 2 RCT. manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pathogens and global health. 8 March 2021:1-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938655/
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH (JCDR Research and Publications)
Waheed M Shoumann et al. 2021
New signals of harm 26 associated with chloroquineazithromycin in the control group may have contributed to the apparent benefit of ivermectin.
On page 34
26. Shouman, Waheed, Hegazy, Abdelmonem, Nafae, Ramadan, Sileem, Ashraf. Use of Ivermectin as a potential chemoprophylaxis for Study investigating ivermectin as prophylaxis for COVID-19. COVID-19 in Egypt : A Randomised clinical trial. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2021. https://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2020/46795.0000
29. Chahla RE et al. A randomized trial - intensive treatment based in ivermectin and iota-carrageenan as pre-exposure prophylaxis for COVID-19. COVID-19 in healthcare agents. medRxiv. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.26.21254398
Toxicology Reports (Elsevier BV)
Henrique Pott-Junior et al. 2021
34. Pott-Junior H et al. Use of ivermectin in the treatment of Covid-19: A pilot trial. Toxicology Reports. 2021;8:505-510.
Toxicology Reports (Elsevier BV)
Henrique Pott-Junior et al. 2021
Pilot study. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.03.003
International Journal of Infectious Diseases (Elsevier BV)
Raymond Chee Seong Seet et al. 2021
35. Seet RS et al. Positive impact of oral hydroxychloroquine and povidone-iodine throat spray for COVID-19 prophylaxis: an open-label Study investigating ivermectin for prophylaxis of COVID-19. randomized trial. Int J Infect Dis. 2021 May;106:314-322. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33864917/
Appendix 4: Evaluating the methodological quality of the Hill et al (2020) systematic review and preliminary meta-analysis – AMSTAR 2 tool (Shea 2017 2 ) No.
On page 39
ADDENDUM TO THE RAPID REVIEW REPORT OF IVERMECTIN FOR COVID-19 UPDATE, 18 JUNE 2021 Appendix A: Evaluating the methodological quality of the Bryant et al (2021) systematic review and meta-analysis – AMSTAR 2 tool (Shea 2017 4 ) No.
On page 47
2 Shea BJ, Reeves BC, Wells G, Thuku M, Hamel C, Moran J, Moher D, Tugwell P, Welch V, Kristjansson E, Henry DA. AMSTAR 2: a critical appraisal tool for systematic reviews that include randomised or non-randomised studies of healthcare interventions, or both. BMJ. 2017 Sep 21;358:j4008.
1 Cepelowicz Rajter J, Sherman M, Fatteh N, et al. ICON (ivermectin in COVID nineteen) study: use of ivermectin is associated with lower mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID19. medRxiv. 2020. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.06.20124461v2
Antiviral Research (Elsevier BV)
Leon Caly et al. 2020
4 Caly L, Druce JD, Catton MG, Jans DA, Wagstaff KM. The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Antiviral Res. 2020;178:104787. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32251768
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Carlos Chaccour et al. 2020
5 Chaccour C, Hammann F, Ramon-Garcia S, Rabinovich NR. Ivermectin and COVID-19: keeping rigor in times of urgency. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;102(6):1156-1157. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32314704
6 Guzzo CA, Furtek CI, Porras AG, et al. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of escalating high doses of ivermectin in healthy adult subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;42(10):1122-1133. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12362927
7 Cepelowicz Rajter J, Sherman M, Fatteh N, et al. ICON (ivermectin in COVID nineteen) study: use of ivermectin is associated with lower mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID19. medRxiv. 2020. Available at: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.06.20124461v2
Appendix 4: Evaluating the methodological quality of the Hill et al (2020) systematic review and preliminary meta-analysis – AMSTAR 2 tool (Shea 2017 2 ) No.
On page 39
ADDENDUM TO THE RAPID REVIEW REPORT OF IVERMECTIN FOR COVID-19 UPDATE, 18 JUNE 2021 Appendix A: Evaluating the methodological quality of the Bryant et al (2021) systematic review and meta-analysis – AMSTAR 2 tool (Shea 2017 4 ) No.
On page 47
10 Shea BJ, Reeves BC, Wells G et al. AMSTAR 2: a critical appraisal tool for systematic reviews that include randomised or non-randomised studies of healthcare interventions, or both. BMJ. 2017 Sep 21;358:j4008. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28935701/
11 Kirti R, Roy R, Pattadar C et al. Ivermectin as a potential treatment for mild to moderate COVID-19: A double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. MedRxiv, 9 January 2021. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.01.05.21249310v1
International Journal of Sciences (Alkhaer Publications)
Aijaz Zeeshan Khan Chachar et al. 2020
12 Chaccar AZK, Khan KA, Asif M et al. Effectiveness of Ivermectin in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Patients, International journal of sciences. September; 9(09):31-35 https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/article/2378
IMC Journal of Medical Science (Bangladesh Journals Online (JOL))
Chinmay Saha Podder et al. 2021
13 Podder CS, Chowdhury N, Sina MI et al. Outcome of ivermectin treated mild to moderate COVID-19 cases: a single-centre, openlabel, randomised controlled study. IMC Journal of Medical Science, 3 September 2020; 14(2): 002 http://www.imcjms.com/registration/journal_abstract/353
https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3714649
14 Krolewiecki A, Lifschitz A, Moragas M et al. Antiviral Effect of High-Dose Ivermectin in Adults with COVID-19: A Pilot Randomised, Controlled, Open Label, Multicentre Trial. SSRN, 11 November 2020. 10.2139/ssrn.3714649
International Journal of Infectious Diseases (Elsevier BV)
Sabeena Ahmed et al. 2021
15 Ahmed S, Karim MM, Ross AG, et al. A five-day course of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 may reduce the duration of illness. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 2;103:214-216. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.11.191
17 Chaccour C, Casellas A, Blanco-Di Matteo A et al. The effect of early treatment with ivermectin on viral load, symptoms and humoral response in patients with non-severe COVID-19: A pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. EClinicalMedicine. 2021 Feb;32:100720. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33495752/
(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)
Karamat Hussain Shah Bukhari et al. 2021
19 Shah Bukhari KH, Asghar A, Perveen N, et al. Efficacy of Ivermectin in COVID-19 Patients with Mild to Moderate Disease. MedRxiv, 5 February 2021. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.02.21250840v1
JAMA (American Medical Association (AMA))
Eduardo López-Medina et al. 2021
20 López-Medina E, López P, Hurtado IC, et al. Effect of Ivermectin on Time to Resolution of Symptoms Among Adults With Mild COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2021 Apr 13;325(14):1426-1435. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33662102/
BMC Infectious Diseases (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)
Nurullah Okumuş et al. 2021
21 Okumuş N, Demirtürk N, Çetinkaya RA, et al. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of adding ivermectin to treatment in severe COVID-19 patients. BMC Infect Dis. 2021 May 4;21(1):411. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33947344/
22 Beltran-Gonzalez J, González Gámez M, Mendoza Enciso EM, et al. Efficacy and safety of Ivermectin and Hydroxychloroquine in patients with severe COVID-19. A randomized controlled trial. MedRxiv, 23 February 2021. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.18.21252037v1
24 Shahbaznejad L, Davoudi A, Eslami G, et al. Effects of Ivermectin in Patients With COVID-19: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial. Clin Ther. 2021 May 6:S0149-2918(21)00201-0. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34052007/
25 Abd-Elsalam S, Noor RA, Badawi R, et al. Clinical study evaluating the efficacy of ivermectin in COVID-19 treatment: A randomized controlled study. J Med Virol. 2021 Jun 2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34076901/
27 Hashim HA, Maulood MF, Rasheed AM et al. Controlled randomized clinical trial on using Ivermectin with Doxycycline for treating COVID-19 patients in Baghdad, Iraq. MedRxiv, 27 October 2020. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.10.26.20219345v1
28 Babalola OE, Bode CO, Ajayi AA et al, Ivermectin shows clinical benefits in mild to moderate Covid19 disease: A randomised controlled double blind dose response study in Lagos. MedRxiv, 6 January 2021. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.01.05.21249131v1
Eurasian Journal of Medicine and Oncology (Kare Publishing)
abu taiub mohammed mohiuddin chowdhury 2021
29 Chowdurry ATMM, Shahbaz M, Karim MR et al. A Comparative Study on Ivermectin-Doxycycline and Hydroxychloroquine- Azithromycin Therapy on COVID-19 Patients. EJMO 2021;5(1):63–70. https://ejmo.org/10.14744/ejmo.2021.16263/
(Research Square Platform LLC)
Ahmed Elgazzar et al. 2020
30 Elgazzar A, Hany B, Youssef SA et al. Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin for Treatment and prophylaxis of COVID-19 Pandemic. Research Square 28 Dec 2020. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-100956/v3
31 Beltran Gonzalez JL, González Gámez M, Mendoza Enciso EA, et al. Efficacy and safety of Ivermectin and Hydroxychloroquine in patients with severe COVID-19. A randomized controlled trial. MedRxiv, 23 February 2021. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.18.21252037v1
32 Galan LEB, Santos NMD, Asato MS, et al. Phase 2 randomized study on chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine or ivermectin in hospitalized patients with severe manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pathog Glob Health. 2021 Jun;115(4):235-242. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33682640/
33 Juurlink DN. Safety considerations with chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection. CMAJ. 2020 Apr 27;192(17):E450-E453. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.200528. Epub 2020 Apr 8. Erratum in: CMAJ. 2020 May 25;192(21):E590. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32269021/
Appendix 4: Evaluating the methodological quality of the Hill et al (2020) systematic review and preliminary meta-analysis – AMSTAR 2 tool (Shea 2017 2 ) No.
On page 39
ADDENDUM TO THE RAPID REVIEW REPORT OF IVERMECTIN FOR COVID-19 UPDATE, 18 JUNE 2021 Appendix A: Evaluating the methodological quality of the Bryant et al (2021) systematic review and meta-analysis – AMSTAR 2 tool (Shea 2017 4 ) No.
On page 47
4 Shea BJ, Reeves BC, Wells G, Thuku M, Hamel C, Moran J, et al. AMSTAR 2: a critical appraisal tool for systematic reviews that include randomised or non-randomised studies of healthcare interventions, or both. BMJ. 2017;358:j4008.
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology (Elsevier BV)
Gordon H. Guyatt et al. 2011
6 Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Kunz R, Brozek J, Alonso-Coello P, Rind D, et al. GRADE guidelines 6. Rating the quality of evidence--imprecision. J Clin Epidemiol. 2011;64(12):1283-93.