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Emerging Infectious Diseases (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC))
Jiaye Liu et al. 2020
According to current evidence, COVID-19 virus is transmitted between people through respiratory droplets and contact routes. 1-6
On page 1
1. Liu J, Liao X, Qian S et al. Community transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Shenzhen, China, 2020. Emerg Infect Dis 2020 doi.org/10.3201/eid2606.200239.
According to current evidence, COVID-19 virus is transmitted between people through respiratory droplets and contact routes. 1-6
On page 1
2. Chan J, Yuan S, Kok K et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet 2020 doi: 10.1016/S0140- 6736(20)30154-9.
New England Journal of Medicine (Massachusetts Medical Society)
Qun Li et al. 2020
According to current evidence, COVID-19 virus is transmitted between people through respiratory droplets and contact routes. 1-6
On page 1
3. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med 2020; doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001316.
According to current evidence, COVID-19 virus is transmitted between people through respiratory droplets and contact routes. 1-6
On page 1
4. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020; 395: 497–506.
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (Centers for Disease Control MMWR Office)
Rachel M. Burke et al. 2020
According to current evidence, COVID-19 virus is transmitted between people through respiratory droplets and contact routes. 1-6
On page 1
5. Burke RM, Midgley CM, Dratch A, Fenstersheib M, Haupt T, Holshue M,et al. Active monitoring of persons exposed to patients with confirmed COVID-19 — United States, January–February 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 doi : 10.15585/mmwr.mm6909e1external icon.
Droplet transmission may also occur through fomites in the immediate environment around the infected person. 7 Therefore, transmission of the COVID-19 virus can occur by direct contact with infected people and indirect contact with surfaces in the immediate environment or with objects used on the infected person (e.g. stethoscope or thermometer).
On page 1
7. Ong SW, Tan YK, Chia PY, Lee TH, Ng OT, Wong MS, et al. Air, surface environmental, and personal protective equipment contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from a symptomatic patient. JAMA. 2020 Mar 4 [Epub ahead of print].
New England Journal of Medicine (Massachusetts Medical Society)
Neeltje van Doremalen et al. 2020
9. van Doremalen N, Morris D, Bushmaker T et al. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. New Engl J Med 2020 doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2004973.
11. Ong SW, Tan YK, Chia PY, Lee TH, Ng OT, Wong MS, et al. Air, surface environmental, and personal protective equipment contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from a symptomatic patient. JAMA. 2020.
Intensive Care Medicine (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)
Waleed Alhazzani et al. 2020
These recommendations are consistent with other national and international guidelines, including those developed by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and Society of Critical Care Medicine 13 and those currently used in Australia, Canada, and United Kingdom.
On page 2
13. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: Guidelines on the Management of Critically Ill Adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Intensive Care Medicine DOI: 10.1007/s00134-020-06022-5 https://www.sccm.org/SurvivingSepsisCampaign/Guidelines/COVID-19.
These recommendations are consistent with other national and international guidelines, including those developed by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and Society of Critical Care Medicine 13 and those currently used in Australia, Canada, and United Kingdom. 14-16
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16. Guidance on infection prevention and control for COVID-19 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/wuhannovel-coronavirus-infection-prevention-and-control.
At the same time, other countries and organizations, including the US Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, recommend airborne precautions for any situation involving the care of COVID-19 patients, and consider the use of medical masks as an acceptable option in case of shortages of respirators (N95, FFP2 or FFP3). 17-18
On page 2
17. Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Patients with Suspected or Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Healthcare Settings. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/infectioncontrol/control-recommendations.html.
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
At the same time, other countries and organizations, including the US Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, recommend airborne precautions for any situation involving the care of COVID-19 patients, and consider the use of medical masks as an acceptable option in case of shortages of respirators (N95, FFP2 or FFP3). 17-18
On page 2
18. Infection prevention and control for COVID-19 in healthcare settings https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publicationsdata/infection-prevention-and-control-covid-19-healthcare-settings.