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These guidelines represent an update to the World Health Organization (WHO) interim guidelines Infection prevention and control of epidemic- and pandemic-prone acute respiratory diseases in health care, 2007 (16). They also incorporate the emergency guidance given in the WHO publication Infection prevention and control during health care for confirmed, probable, or suspected cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection and influenza-like illness, 2009 (17). It was considered imperative to review and incorporate
Information on the technical details of environmental ventilation is no longer in this document, because this information is now available in a separate WHO publication, Natural ventilation for infection control in health-care settings, 2009 (1). These guidelines retain reference to natural ventilation as an effective method for IPC.
Recommendations for prevention and control of pneumonic plague have been addressed in a previous World Health Organization (WHO) publication Operational guidelines on plague surveillance, diagnosis, prevention and control, 2009 (26), and a summary of IPC precautions is provided in Table 2.1 in these guidelines.
Tuberculosis (TB) seldom presents as an ARI. However, its spread has been associated with health care and is a major global health concern. Recommendations for prevention and control of TB in health-care facilities have been addressed in a previous WHO publication – WHO policy on TB infection control in health-care facilities, congregate settings and households, 2009 (27) – and a summary of IPC precautions is provided in the Table 2.1.
• WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in health care, 2009 (215).
• WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in health care, 2009 (215).
These guidelines were updated in accordance with the WHO handbook for guideline development, 2012 (18). The process comprised multiple steps, including setting up a guideline development group, scoping the revision of the document, and setting up an external expert review group to guide the systematic reviews using the PICOT framework (which clearly defined the IPC intervention in terms of question, population, comparator and outcome), and the conduct of the systematic reviews, including evidence retrieval and synthesis. Where systematic reviews could not be undertaken, evidence-based reviews or critical appraisals of the literature were done instead. Evidence was synthesized and recommendations formulated using the GRADE framework (18, 46-50).
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